Lot Line Adjustment: 11 Things (2024) You Need To Know

If you’re looking for a way to transfer land between adjacent (but separate) lots, then it’s time to learn about lot line adjustment.

This is also known as a boundary line adjustment.

It is a process that allows a minor relocation of property boundaries or merging of lots.

In this blog, we’ll explain more about what a lot line adjustment is, how it works, and why you may want to use it.

Let’s get started.

1. What is a lot line adjustment?

A lot line adjustment is an extensive process that involves altering the property lines of existing parcels of land.

The primary aim is to change the existing legal property boundaries.

However, the lot line adjustment itself can also serve several other purposes including:

bulletMerging up to 4 adjoining parcels into one single parcel (depending on the jurisdiction’s rules)

bulletAllow the shapes of up to 4 parcels to be reconfigured (depending on the jurisdiction’s rules)

With this process, it’s possible to both lessen the number of parcels or keep the number the same while altering the boundaries.

The only thing you can’t use this process for is to increase the number of parcels you have.

So, if you have four parcels, you can’t suddenly turn them into eight parcels.

You would need to subdivide the lots to do this.

2. How do I apply for a lot line adjustment?

There are several requirements for lot line adjustments that you will need to fulfill when applying.

Some of these will depend on the state and city where you live, so make sure you check your jurisdiction’s rules and regulations.

You’ll need to obtain a lot line adjustment application at the planning department for the county that you reside in.

The simplest route is to go to your planning department’s website and download it.

The application itself is usually relatively easy to fill out, but both the legal descriptions and illustrations of the parcels will need to be completed and submitted on your behalf by a registered civil engineer or licensed land surveyor.

You will also need to submit a number of other documents, including, but not limited to, the following:

bulletAn application form

bulletA copy of a preliminary title report, which must be less than 90 days old

bulletIllustrations that display the current parcel configuration and the new parcel configuration

bulletA legal description of every newly configured lot

bulletA preliminary review fee

The planning department will then review the application and, hopefully, approve it by issuing a notice of decision.

This approval may come with certain conditions that need to be met prior to finalizing the adjustment.

It’s important to note that planning approval of a proposed lot line adjustment does not create the new boundary lines.

A lot line adjustment is essentially one parcel conveying a portion of its land to another (effectively making one lot a bit bigger and another a bit smaller after the adjustment).

Thus, a deed conveying a portion of one property to another must be recorded in order for the lot line adjustment to be codified.

The county may also require that you record a survey of the new properties.

Once the deed is recorded, and all conditions are met, the county will then issue a certificate of compliance.

3. What activities require a lot line adjustment?

There are many situations where a lot line adjustment may be useful.

Perhaps you are looking to build on the lot and need to adjust the boundaries of your property in order to meet setback requirements or create a better design.

Alternatively, you may need an adjustment in order to improve access to your lot.

Or perhaps you own two adjacent lots and you want to combine them.

Each case is unique!

4. What are the costs?

Before moving forward with lot line adjustment, you’ll need to understand the costs associated with the process.

bullet$300-$500: Fee for a registered civil engineer or licensed land surveyor to prepare illustrations that display the current configurations and boundary lines of the lots in question

bullet$1,000: Preliminary fee which will be required when you file your application (depending on the jurisdiction)

5. What’s the typical timeline for processing?

It usually takes around 90 days for a decision on a lot line adjustment.

But this can vary depending on the specific scenario.

For example, if a discretionary action or zoning variance is required along with the lot line adjustment, then the application processing times can be much longer since public hearings may be required.

6. How do lot line adjustments work?

Lot line adjustments can be tricky.

Often, they’re impacted by zoning regulations that are specific to your city or county.

For example, if you live in an urban setting where you and your neighbor both own 2,000 square foot lots, you may think it’s fine for him to sell you 500 square feet of his lot.

His would then be 1,500 square feet and yours would be 2,500 square feet.

If both parties are happy, there’s no issue, right?


Some zoning regulations in certain jurisdictions state that there are minimum lot sizes.

If the minimum lot size in your jurisdiction was 1,750, then your neighbor would only be able to sell you 250 square feet.

Additionally, zoning requirements often regulate side yard setbacks, front and back yard setbacks, and the size of your home.

Furthermore, you may find that your municipality requires you to obtain the approval of different departments before adjusting the lot line.

Departments that you may need to involve include the local water department, zoning department, building department, school board, county board, waste management board, village board, and more.

Also, keep in mind that the lot line adjustment must also comply with the land use provisions laid out in the city or county’s general plan.

7. What are the tax implications of the lot line adjustment?

If your lot line adjustment creates a change in the acreage of any particular lot, then your municipality should recognize this change in its assessment for tax purposes.

Towns are responsible for continually updating their tax maps to indicate ownership and parcel size changes.

This way, maps accurately represent the boundaries of each parcel.

If lot line adjustments have created changes in the acreage of certain parcels, then new maps should indicate it, and owners should be taxed accordingly.

The assessors should also obtain copies of the recorded deed(s), which describe the new boundaries and acreage in addition to proof of planning board approval.

Sometimes, parties may obtain approval from the planning board, but never record new deeds codifying the new boundary lines.

If this occurs, then the parties will continue to be taxed based on the previous acreage despite the existence of an approved plan for a changed boundary line.

8. What’s the difference between a boundary line adjustment and a boundary line agreement?

Boundary line adjustment is just another name for lot line adjustment.

But what’s the difference between that and a boundary line agreement?

In both cases, the boundary line between two adjacent property owners is being changed in some way.

However, the key differences are jurisdiction and purpose.

A boundary line adjustment (lot line adjustment) is sought if owners agree over the line and merely wish to exchange the land.

While there is mutual understanding, the jurisdiction to change this still resides with the local planning authority.

There is still an application and review period, and they have the ultimate decision-making power.

But because it is the planning department that has authority, the boundary line adjustment is an administrative action.

A boundary line agreement, on the other hand, is judicial action.

In this case, the agreement gives the property owners the ability to resolve an ownership conflict resulting from poorly written deeds, encroachments, etc.

For example, say your neighbor is selling their land and gets a survey done.

This survey calls into question ownership over the land where you have built a fence.

To keep this case out of court, you could resolve the dispute among yourselves with an agreement.

In this case, either you or your neighbor would agree to relinquish control of the land in question, and the agreement would then clarify which property the fence belongs to.

The advantage here is that, once you and your neighbor come to an agreement, you may be able to complete the process without the review of the local planning department.

This is often convenient because issues that might make the approval of a lot line adjustment application problematic or prolonged may not need to be addressed.

9. What happens if a boundary dispute cannot be resolved?

To return to our example above, let’s say you cannot come to an agreement with your neighbor as to whether your fence falls inside or outside of your property’s boundary lines.

Should the dispute truly center on where the property boundary lies, you can first try to resolve the issue by jointly selecting a surveyor whose survey will determine the agreed-upon boundary line.

If this does not work, the next step would be mediation.

In a worst-case scenario, you can file a civil lawsuit against the other owner and let the court establish where the true boundary should run.

In many instances, a quiet title action, adverse possession claim or other action will need to be initiated to clearly delineate ownership.

Be sure that you consult with a local real estate attorney to determine what the best course of action is for your situation.

Final thoughts

The lot line agreement process largely depends on your local regulations.

Our guide helps lay out the larger points of what you need to know if you’re going through the process.

However, it’s crucial that you start researching your local planning department and what they require.

This step will reveal critical details that pertain to your specific situation.

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Erika Gokce Capital

Disclaimer: we are not lawyers, accountants or financial advisors and the information in this article is for informational purposes only. This article is based on our own research and experience and we do our best to keep it accurate and up-to-date, but it may contain errors. Please be sure to consult a legal or financial professional before making any investment decisions.


34 thoughts on “Lot Line Adjustment: 11 Things (2024) You Need To Know”

  1. Hi Erica,
    You can also use the lot line adjustment to create a separate sellable lot if the underlying lots can be adjusted to meet minimum setbacks, minimum lot size, and all other pertinent zoning regulations. There are cases where two or more lots can be adjusted to meet the zoning requirements and the end result can increase the value of the property substantially.
    Brian Jones, P.L.S.

    • Thank you for your comment, Brian. This is a great point.

  2. Is it legal to do a boundary adjustment when you have a mortgage and are giving up land?

    • Hello Debby, I would check with your bank first to see if they will allow this.

  3. Erika:

    Which option results in lower property taxes?

    New build on separated property or do a lot line adjustment and then do the new build on the combined lot?

    Thanks. KJ

    • Hello KJ, that really depends on the jurisdiction. I would recommend speaking with the local assessor to see how a lot line adjustment may affect the assessed value.

  4. who is responsible in moving an overhead public power line off your property after a lot line adjustment. Thank You Jack Frost, Joseph Oregon

    • Hello Jack, if it is a public power line, I’m not sure if you can move it, but you should check with the local utility company.

  5. Hello, and thank you for taking time to read my question and thinking on this issue. I have a 6 acre plot, that in past years got split into 4 different tracts. They all are mine now, and registered in my name. Am I able to make it one whole tract instead of 4 on the tax records. They all are together, surveyed and pictures of the seperation in the register of deeds office. Do I have to hire surveyors and such to just remove those lines or I able to write it out and file it at the Register’s office. Rural area, not in city limits. Seems ridiculous to pay all that money to do what an eraser could just take care of. :)

    • Hello Brandon, it depends on the regulations of the town where the properties are located. You probably are able to create a merger of all of the properties, but you will likely need an amended legal description for the boundaries of the larger parcel. Alternatively, you could ask a lawyer how the legal description could be drafted without an updated survey.

  6. Hi Erika, I am buying a property which consists of four separate tax lots three of the lots have houses on them. The fourth lot is vacant. The leach fields of the three houses run on to the vacant lot, I plan on filing for a lot line adjustment to make the vacant lot smaller, so that it will not contain the leach fields of the three houses. Do you think this is possible? I don’t think I would be able to do anything with the vacant lot if I do not do this, and I don’t want to own a vacant not somebody else’s stuff on it (leach fields). What are your thoughts?

    • Hello Elizabeth, this really depends on the rules of the local jurisdiction. At a high level, as long as you have permission from the other property owners, I can’t think of reason why you couldn’t do this, but I would speak with the local planning department.

  7. IWe’d like to find someone to help me split my double residential lot to two partials so I can build a house on the second partial please call me 206-390-6880 thank you

    • Hello Elwood, you would likely need to go through a subdivision process for this. Unfortunately, we cannot complete the subdivision for you, but you can always reach out to a local real estate attorney for help. If you would like, please feel free to call or email during normal business hours (gokcecapital.com/contact-us).

  8. Hi Erika,

    Thank you for your helpful article. If a homeowner buys 2 adjacent lots and builds one home on the entire area, would they have to officially remove the boundary line in order to merge the 2 lots before they build?

    • Thank you for reading! I would speak with the local planning department, but my guess is that yes, you would need to merge the lots if you wanted to build a home that spans across both.

  9. please contact me i live in west virginia and looking for vacant property if [ossible 2,000 to 4000 no more than a 14/to a half acre retired / disabled elevator consturctor thank you

    • Hello James, I just sent you an email.

      • Hello Erika,
        I purchased 3 adjacent lots in Florida and legally combined 2 of the lots. I now have 2 lots per my Survey. There is a utility easement shown on the survey that runs thru the boundary lines of the original 3 adjacent lots. Now that I have combined 2 of the lots, the utility easement now runs thru the middle of the combined lots. I would like to build near the utility easement location, but have a utility easement setback down the middle of the combined lots. I am wondering if I will be able to adjust the location of that utility easement along the newly formed boundary lot line? Would I need a Boundary Determination Letter or a Boundary Line Adjustment, as utility easements and setbacks normally run along the lot boundary line. Thank you, Sam

        • Hello Sam, unfortunately, I cannot answer this question. I would recommend speaking with your county planning department.

  10. I purchased a home of approximately 3,6 acres for my wife and I. Upon obtaining the new mortgage, my wife sided suddenly. I am splitting two one acre lots off on each side and selling for two reasons. One to improve the home, secondly to reduce maintenance. The home is worth farmore now from tens of thousands of improvements, The mortage company owns the entire acreage and I wish to have a lot line adjustment to keep existing mortgage on the home and 1.5 acres left. What steps do I need to go thru to accomplish that process. The home and 1.5 acres and adjoining lots are currently surveyed, before zoning and i need this done to release lien on out parcels.

    • Hello Larry, you should check with your bank and also with the local county/city planning department to verify the requirements to execute a lot line adjustment. Best of luck!

  11. I have the property my house is on and another property of about 20 ft beyond the property of the house. I would like to expand my fence line all the way back another 20 ft to the other property line. From your experience, do I need to merge the 2 parcels or can I do this since I own both properties?

    • Hello Devin, you can always check with an attorney, but if you own both properties the encroachment wouldn’t be an issue unless you want to sell. Still, you could simply merge the lots or execute a lot line adjustment to make sure there are no future issues.

  12. Hi, I own a property next door to my parents property and they would like to gift half of the property they own (50 acres) that includes a house and other buildings. Can a lot line adjustment include buildings if we where to try going that route? And do you know if there is any capital gains owed with doing a lot line adjustment? Thanks, Curtis.

    • Hello Curtis, I do believe a lot line adjustment can include buildings, but I do always recommend that you speak with the county/city planning department before undertaking any projects. I would also speak with your accountant about capital gains, but it likely depends on whether this is a sale or a gift. I hope this helps!

  13. Thank you for this great information! Quick question: I filed an adverse possession with my neighbor for 750 sq which I now own. I paid my neighbor back-taxes, paid for the lawyer and the BLA survey, which is now recorded. My mortgage holder: Fannie Mae required I have an appraisal done – $850, since I’m trying to update my loan/escrow and deed to include new property taxes. I’m having a difficult time reaching out to them and am not sure of the next steps. I’d appreciate any info you can offer – I live in Pierce Co Washington state.

    • Hello Beverly, typically, Fannie Mae purchases mortgages from a bank or other lender that originates the loan. If this was the case with your mortgage, perhaps try reaching out to the bank that originated your loan to see if they can get in touch with Fannie Mae for you or give you the appropriate contact information.

  14. Good article. I had trouble finding good info on Lot Line Adjustment (LLA). I have a unique situation; there is a “gap” or gore of land between my property and my neighbor. It is not claimed by anyone (I know, it is hard to believe). I want to add it to my property either by quiet title or LLA. I had a land survey completed for my property and the surveyor will also attempt to tie into the adjacent property to see if they own it. The LLA usually entails the term subdivision but can it also mean merge properties by moving a boundary? What legal process would you suggest? (I also read : subdivision-review-in-nys_0.pdf, Part III: The Subdivision Review Process, Defining Subdivision). Thank you.

    • Hello Stewart, I would recommend speaking with both your local planning department and a real estate attorney. My understanding is that you still need to have that extra sliver of land deeded to you in order to incorporate it into your existing property as a lot line adjustment, which would be hard to do if it doesn’t have a current owner. If this is the case, it may need to be a quiet title action. I hope this helps!

  15. Hi Erika, Love your blog! Whilst I live in Australia, much of what you say about Encroachment of Property relates to our laws just the same (Common English Law, I think). My case is complicated, and I am seeking legal services and a cadastral surveyor as my next steps. My neighbour (aware of how her driveway trespasses/encroaches on my boundary, incorporating about 18 square metres of my land frontage) and I have been trying to work things out ‘neighbourly’ for four years to set things right. I am not concerned about Adverse Possession (12 years applies in our state in Australia) but more about ‘Continuous Use’ as although I have written proof of my contest concerning her utilising my land and how she has employed delay tactics, I now have a State Department wanting to keep their infrastructure inconveniently placed next to her driveway, rather than move it to accommodate the true boundary. This implies the utility would rather run roughshod over the accurately surveyed boundary lines and hence take my property (with no offer of resumption compensation). I am literally stuck between a rock and a hard place and wonder if you could clarify the term ‘Continuous Use’ with respect to how my neighbour has continued to trespass/encroach against my wishes and without approval. There has been no negligence on my part where I have given an implicit or explicit agreement by not taking her to court yet. She has led me down the garden path (literally), acting as though we are working together to restore the true boundary, stretching out the time lapse until the matter must go before a tribunal hearing. Any information you can point to would be invaluable to me.

    • Hello Jan, I’m afraid I have no knowledge of laws in Australia. Plus, since I’m not a lawyer, I would also be concerned about offering legal advice. Have you spoken with a local attorney yet?

  16. hi Erika
    any advise for encroachment on newly purchased property in nys please?
    hearing things like lot line change or lot line agreement sub division easement..
    what is the best route to be able to resell without any unexpected complications ?

    • Are you in contact with the owner of the encroachment? You could offer to do a lot line adjustment for a small fee. This may be the easiest option.


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