Land Swap: 10 Things (2024) You Must Know

Land swapping isn’t a common practice, but when it’s used, it can make a big difference!

If you’re a property owner or land developer that is interested in understanding how to make the most out of your small parcel of land, read on!

This information may be just the ticket you need to understand how to unlock the potential of the land you hold.

Here’s what you should know about land swaps, how they’re used by private property owners, and how you can work with bigger players like the U.S. Forest Service.

1. What is a land swap?

A land swap is a like-kind property exchange where two or more parties swap parcels of land with similar values.

This is a mutually beneficial arrangement that allows property owners to either consolidate or reposition their holdings.

Often, the objective is to enhance the potential of their future development, optimize land use, or protect the land in some way.

2. Does the Forest Service offer land exchanges?


The Forest Service now has the authority to move forward with land swaps with both private individuals and groups.

Congress has granted them this useful power.

Although the Forest Service has limited authority to sell lands and only a small fund to acquire key tracts, they can turn to land swaps in appropriate circumstances.

Though, it must be noted that National Forests cannot follow through on all land swap proposals that they receive.

They simply do not have the resources.

Additionally, exchanges have become increasingly more expensive due to the time and resources it takes to complete the swap.

In recent years, more regulatory requirements mandate additional resources.

That said, the Forest Service has created a formal process by which it will evaluate the proposed exchanges to evaluate possible land swaps fairly and consistently.

3. How does a land swap work (in general)?

Generally speaking, a land swap begins by having the properties carefully evaluated for their market value to ensure that they are being compared fairly.

In order to comply with tax regulations — especially when it comes to a 1031 exchange — the parcels must be a similar fair market value.

After that, the two parties will follow five steps such as exchange proposal, feasibility evaluation, processing and documentation, decision analysis and approval, and title transfer.

4. How does a land swap work (with the Forest Service)?

Above, we talked you through the process of a land swap if you were to exchange land between two ordinary parties.

Now, we’ll discuss what it would look like if a private group or individual were to exchange land with the Forest Service.

Here are the steps:

bulletExchange Proposal

You must first meet with a District Ranger who manages the federal land that will be involved in the land swap.

The ranger will determine if the proposed tracts of land are identified as exchange lands in the Forest Land Adjustment Plan.

You may be asked to submit additional information as needed.

The ranger will need to submit their highest priority exchange proposal to a forest-wide team for further review.

Normally, just one exchange is started in the forest each year.

Sometimes no exchanges are started if other exchanges are still in the process of being completed.

If the ranger decides to move forward with your exchange, then you’ll follow the rest of the steps in this list.

bulletFeasibility Analysis

This document identifies the lands that are being considered for exchange, any outstanding rights to them, and whether the exchange is in the interest of the public.

After being compiled, the document is reviewed and approved.

bulletReview for Hazardous Materials

Lands must be reviewed for the presence of hazardous materials according to the EPA’s All Appropriate Inquiry rule.

bulletAgreement to Initiate

The Forest Service and exchange partner will sign a non-binding agreement.

This agreement documents the scope of the exchange, cost estimates, and the party or parties responsible for funding or performing the actions necessary to complete the land swap.

bulletPublic Notification

Before the land swap can move forward, the public must be notified so that they have the opportunity to comment on the proposal.

bulletNEPA Analysis

Specialists examine the parcels and determine whether there are special circumstances that would render the proposed exchange not in the public interest.

Often, this information is made available for public comment in an Environment Analysis document.

This document will also determine whether or not to complete the exchange, and that decision may be appealable by the public, which is good to keep in mind.

bulletAppraisal Preparation and Approval

Appraisals will be completed for all land tracts included in the exchange.

These exchanges are based on a value-for-value basis (not an acre-for-acre) basis.

bulletExchange Agreement

The Forest Service and private party will then move forward with a legally binding exchange agreement.


After that, a final review is performed.

This process includes final surveys being done, plats being drawn, and final title work being completed.

The exchange package is drawn up with all the necessary documents and sent to the Washington Office for final review and approval by government attorneys.

Keep in mind that this is a lengthy process.

Most land swaps require 2 to 4 years to complete.

Some take even longer if complications arise.

bulletFollow-up Action

If your case is approved, then there will be a few “follow-up” steps, including title clearance and transaction closing before the case is closed.

5. What are the costs involved in a land exchange?

There are quite a few factors that will impact costs if you’re interested in a land exchange.

At a minimum, you’ll pay for an appraisal, survey, and title cost.

However, if you’re working with the Forest Service, you’ll likely also need to pay for the case processor’s time, resource specialist’s time, appraisals, land surveys, and NEPA preparation.

If you’re in a rush to get the land swap done as quickly as possible, then this could also factor into the price.

Ultimately, the price for a land exchange will vary depending on the size and complexity of the project itself.

6. How are land values determined for a land swap?

You’ll need to get your land appraised prior to a land swap.

Appraisals are done based on the land’s “highest and best use” (HBU) market value.

A professional appraiser will be involved in this decision-making.

However, don’t worry if you don’t agree with the appraiser because you’ll be able to get a second opinion from a certified review appraiser.

They will review the appraisal for accuracy.

Parcels of the same size can have significant differences in value due to different HBUs or factors like access, which affects value.

Forest Service land exchanges are completed on an equal-value basis.

If one parcel has a higher value based on appraisal, the difference can be made up in cash.

But it shouldn’t exceed 25 percent of the value of the Federal land.

7. What are the benefits of a land swap?

Here are the top benefits of a land exchange.

One of the following reasons is often why a landowner will explore a land swap with another party.

bulletStrategic land consolidation

If you have scattered land holdings, doing a land swap may allow you to consolidate your properties into contiguous parcels.

Consolidation will allow you to more effectively manage your land and potentially have a higher property value.

bulletUnlocking development potential

When you consolidate your property, you end up with land that is better suited for long-term development goals.

You can exchange land that has more favorable zoning or better access to utilities.

Overall, when you play this game correctly, you unlock potential for future development projects.

bulletTax deferral benefits

Land swaps can offer significant tax advantages if done the right way.

For instance, a 1031 exchange means that capital gains taxes on the relinquished property are deferred.

As the investor, you are able to reinvest the full proceeds of the sale into a similar property.

bulletEnhanced land use

Property owners and developers will use land swaps to acquire land with specific features or resources that complement their existing holdings.

For example, if you’re a developer that specializes in eco-tourism then you might exchange land to acquire a parcel with natural attractions such as a scenic view or body of water.

bulletStreamlined negotiations

When each party is interested in the other’s property, then this is a mutually beneficial transaction.

This allows you to have a smooth and streamlined negotiation process where everyone ultimately gets what they want.

8. What are the potential challenges of a land swap?

Land swaps offer numerous advantages, which is why people consider moving forward with them.

However, before you make such a significant decision regarding your property, we urge you to consider the potential challenges that may arise.

bulletFinding compatible partners

It can be difficult to identify compatible partners in a land exchange.

Seek out potential partners that have parcels that meet your requirements, align with your long-term objectives, and have similar fair market value.

bulletMarket value disparities

As noted above, the exchanged properties must have similar fair market values.

Even if the exchange is perfect in every other sense, the transaction cannot move forward if the values are substantially different because you won’t qualify for tax deferral benefits.

If you have questions about this, you can always reach out to an experienced real estate attorney or accountant.

bulletRegulatory hurdles

Just like all other land transactions, you can encounter regulatory issues.

These challenges include everything from environmental considerations and regulatory challenges that must be addressed to complete the exchange successfully.

bulletTiming and coordination

Any time you’re coordinating a sale or exchange of property between two parties, it can get complex.

A land swap requires precise timing and organization to ensure a smooth transaction.

9. What prevents an approved land swap from being completed?

There are a few situations in which a land swap could be approved and then fail to move forward.

Here are the most common:

bulletThreatened or endangered species

If a specialist determines that threatened or endangered species are on one tract of land (specifically on the federal parcel), then it may make the land too valuable for the overall public to allow it to be swapped.

bulletLand values

If the land values are too far apart after both appraisals have occurred, then the land swap may not be able to take place.

This can occur in several scenarios.

One common one is if only one tract has legal access

bulletUnknown title problems

If the private party does not have adequate title to exchange their parcel, then this will prevent the land swap from taking place.

Be aware that the Forest Service cannot promise that an exchange will take place.

The commitment is made in good faith, but something can always go wrong throughout the process that prevents the land swap from being completed.

10. What are the criteria for federal land to be conveyed?

If you want federal land to be involved in a land swap, then here are the traits that must be present.

Not all of these must be present simultaneously, but one or more of these must be a factor.

bulletThey must be small parcels that are intermingled with private land

bulletThe parcels must serve a greater public need in the state, county, city, or other federal agency ownership in which they reside

bulletThe parcels must be isolated from other National Forest System lands

bulletThe lands must be under special use authorizations and occupied by substantial structural improvements

bulletThere must be occupancy trespass cases involving highly valuable structural improvements

bulletThe parcels must be within a major block of private land that is not used for forest purposes

bulletThe parcel must have boundaries or portions of boundaries with inefficient configurations (i.e., protecting long, narrow strips of land)

bulletThe parcel of land must be inside or adjacent to communities or intensively developed private land

bulletThe land must be chiefly valuable for non-national forest purposes

Final Thoughts

Land swaps are a powerful and innovative tool for landowners who are looking to make the most of their real estate.

Whether you’re looking to make the most of your current holdings, unlock future development potential, or enjoy tax deferral benefits, this option helps pave the way for transformative projects and optimized land use.

That said, you must do your due diligence when understanding how the process works.

Land swaps require meticulous planning, professional guidance, and a clear understanding of the objectives involved.

As a property owner and developer, you should explore the opportunities for a land swap if you have always thought you just needed a bit more land or a different configuration to make your dreams come true.

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Erika Gokce Capital

Disclaimer: we are not lawyers, accountants or financial advisors and the information in this article is for informational purposes only. This article is based on our own research and experience and we do our best to keep it accurate and up-to-date, but it may contain errors. Please be sure to consult a legal or financial professional before making any investment decisions.


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